Quantum Bit

What does Quantum Bit (Qubit) mean?

A quantum bit (qubit) is the smallest unit of quantum information, which is the quantum analog of the regular computer bit, used in the field of quantum computing. A quantum bit can exist in superposition, which means that it can exist in multiple states at once. Compared to a regular bit, which can exist in one of two states, 1 or 0, the quantum bit can exist as a 1, 0 or 1 and 0 at the same time. This allows for very fast computing and the ability to do multitudes of calculations at once, theoretically.

The ability of a qubit to exist in a superposition state means that a quantum computer is not limited to two states and is therefore able to hold more information, giving quantum computers the potential to be millions of times more powerful than today’s supercomputers. A qubit may represent anything very small, of quantum level, such as atoms, photons and electrons, which, when made to work together, can act like processors and memory.

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What does Three-Way-Handshake mean?

A three-way-handshake is a method used in a TCP/IP network to create a connection between a local host/client and server. It is a three-step method that requires both the client and server to exchange SYN and ACK (acknowledgment) packets before actual data communication begins.

A three-way-handshake is also known as a TCP handshake.

A three-way-handshake is primarily used to create a TCP socket connection. It works when:

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Open Web Application Security Project

What does Open Web Application Security Project (OWASP) mean?

The Open Web Application Security Project (OWASP) is a 501(c)(3) nonprofit founded in 2001 with the goal of improving security for software applications and products. A community project, OWASP involves different types of initiatives such as incubator projects, laboratory projects and flagship projects intended to evolve the software process.

OWASP represents one of a number of vanguard groups working with government agencies and other parties to improve digital technology standards for enterprise and public use. Working on a kind of open source or “crowdsourced” model, OWASP offers a range of community projects aimed at helping others to use technology more safely and effectively. Some projects under this group’s aegis include a Software Assurance Maturity Model (SAMM), as well as development and testing guides that provide best practices for tech industries. OWASP has also developed a code review guide used by IT professionals to look at source code issues and an application code verification standard. Yet another type of project development OWASP is doing involves learning projects. For instance, the group’s “WebGoat” project consists of deliberately insecure tech structures that serve as a kind of training ground for IT people to pursue trial and error research into how to make technologies more secure.

Control Program for Microcomputers

What does Control Program For Microcomputers (CP/M) mean?

Control Program for Microcomputers (CP/M) was an operating system designed for Intel 8080 and 8085 family of processors. It was developed by Gary Kildall and was published under his organization, Digital Research Inc., in the mid-1970s.

Control Program for Microcomputers may also be known as Control Program/Monitor.

Control Program for Microcomputers was initially designed to work on eight-bit processors and provided only 64 KB of memory. It was the first operating system that introduced the Basic Input Output System (BIOS), which made it compatible with different hardware platforms.

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Black Hat Search Engine Optimization

What does Black Hat Search Engine Optimization (Black Hat SEO) mean?

Black hat search engine optimization (SEO) refers to controversial SEO methods used to acquire higher Web page search engine rankings. Black hat SEO is often described as a search engine algorithm gaming technique. It makes use of aggressive techniques and procedures which are only aimed at search engines and do not consider a website’s human audience. Black hat SEO methods are usually considered unethical.

In the early days of SEO, many black hat SEO techniques were considered legitimate – although a bit aggressive. These techniques have since been abandoned as search engines have released clearer SEO guidelines. Although several black hat SEO techniques work effectively, they mostly offer short-term gains.

Examples of black hat SEO methods include:

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What does FreeBSD mean?

FreeBSD is a free, open-source, Unix-like operating system based on Berkeley Software Distribution (BSD) Unix. It is the most popular among the BSD-based operating systems, with an installed base of more than 75%. Due to legal constraints, FreeBSD cannot be labeled as a Unix system, although it is compliant with Unix internals and application programming interfaces (APIs). FreeBSD’s licensing terms give developers a high degree of freedom to reuse it, so other operating systems (such as MAC OSX) have reused many FreeBSD codes. Although FreeBSD is not categorized as Unix, MAC OSX does have a formal Unix branding.

FreeBSD is used by millions of users all over the world, as well as some of the busiest sites on the Internet such as Yahoo, Sony Japan, etc.

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Fat Client

What does Fat Client mean?

A fat client is a networked computer with many locally-stored programs or resources and little dependence on network resources, such as auxiliary drives, CD-RW/DVD players or software applications. Typically, users prefer fat client computers over thin clients because fat clients allow easy customization and greater control over installed programs and system configuration.

Because output is locally generated, a fat client also enables a more sophisticated graphical user interface (GUI) and reduced server load.

A fat client is also known as a thick client.

A fat client is often built with expensive hardware with many moving parts and should not be placed in a hostile environment. Otherwise, the fat client may not function optimally.

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Cloud Middleware

What does Cloud Middleware mean?

Simply put, middleware is a software platform that sits between an application/device and another application/device. It makes the connection between any two clients, servers, databases or even applications possible; it is not used directly by end users. Cloud middleware, however, is always accessible to the user in the form of remote software platform for communication or management of data.

Typically situated between the operating system and an application, cloud middleware provides a number of functionalities to the user. It helps in the creation of business applications; facilitates concurrency, transactions, threading and messaging; and provides a service component architecture framework for creating service-oriented architecture (SOA) applications. Web servers, application servers and databases are examples of cloud middleware.

Middleware programs generally provide communication services and serve the purpose of a messenger so that different applications can send and receive messages. Different applications situated at different physical locations can be “tied” together to perform a task through cloud middleware.


What does Cruft mean?

Cruft is a slang term for useless, redundant, or poorly written code. Cruft includes any code that is not necessary for an application to perform the task it was designed for. It also can be used in the context of code that is so poorly written, that you might as well throw it out and start from scratch.

Cruft isn’t necessarily a bug, but rather makes the code harder to read and maintain. A code or piece of software suffering from cruft may be called “crufty” or “cruftier than the previous version”.

Consider the following section of code in Java which illustrates the existence of code.

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Back Orifice

What does Back Orifice (BO) mean?

Back Orifice (BO) is a remote administration system that allows a user to take full control of a computer remotely running the Microsoft Windows operating system (OS) across a TCP/IP connection, either through a simple console or graphical user interface (GUI).

BO actually gives the remote machine more control over a local area network (LAN) or through the Internet, that it does with the person sitting in front of a computer. The program is quite controversial, as it was developed to demonstrate the lack of security in the Windows 98 OS and has all the potential capabilities needs by hackers, despite having a legitimate purpose, like remote administration.

The name is a play on words of Microsoft’s BackOffice Server software.

BO was developed by American hacker Josh Buchbinder, also known as Sir Dystic, to expose the security capabilities of Windows 98.

The application came in the form of a remote administration system that is remotely installed without user interaction and does not show up in the task manager panel, so it cannot be killed. It restarts itself each time the OS starts. The system’s client side is installed on another computer where the administrator can take control of the remote computer.

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