GameOver ZeuS

What does GameOver ZeuS (GOZ) mean?

GameOver ZeuS (GOZ) is a peer-to-peer botnet malware that is an evolution of the earlier ZeuS Trojan and uses encrypted peer-to-peer communication between its nodes and command and control servers, which its predecessor did not have, making it more elusive to law enforcement detection operations. Like the original ZeuS Trojan, GOZ is used to steal financial information so that the cybercriminal is able to make illegal withdrawals of funds from businesses and individuals through various financial institutions.

GameOver ZeuS is an evolution of the original ZeuS Trojan; hence, it has more powerful features and better evasion methods against detection. This comes in the form of an encrypted peer-to-peer architecture for communication, which makes it more difficult to track and trace since it cannot be immediately tracked to a central operation server, making it very difficult to shut down the cybercriminal’s activities. Another new capability is the ability to initiate a denial-of-service attack through the created botnet. This capability often requires an entirely different type of Trojan, but, in this case, it is built into GOZ.

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Smart Key

What does Smart Key mean?

A smart key is a key with digital or information features that can facilitate more functionality than just unlocking a physical or digital lock system. With the emergence of new technologies that can use radio frequency (RF) signals and convert them to digital information, the use of smart keys has become more widespread in many industries, including the automotive field and the hospitality industry.

A smart key is also known as an intelligent key.

Many uses of the term “smart key” in IT pertain to the auto industry. The types of keyless entry fobs and other modern auto products that facilitate keyless entry, auto-start and other features are often referred to as smart keys and are now endowed with more useful features for security, convenience and more.

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Server Message Block

What does Server Message Block (SMB) mean?

Server Message Block (SMB) is an application-layer network protocol that facilitates network communication while providing shared access to client files, printers and serial ports.

SMB is prevalent in Microsoft Windows operating systems released prior to the Active Directory protocol, where it was known as Microsoft Windows Network.

SMB is also known as the Common Internet File System (CIFS).

SMB was engineered to run via the following application programming interfaces (API) for the network basic input/output system (NetBIOS) and the NetBIOS extended user interface (NetBEUI):

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What does Waveguide mean?

A waveguide is a structure that is used to guide electromagnetic waves such as radio waves and microwaves. It serves to channel radio waves in a specific dimension and in a specific shape, allowing them to travel longer distances from the source toward the antenna and to travel only in a predetermined area in order to avoid interference and collision with other waves. Waveguides often come in the form of hollow conductive metal tubes or pipes that vary in size and shape depending on the wave being propagated.

A waveguide is used to confine the wave to propagate in one dimension so that under ideal conditions the wave loses very little power during propagation, since if it is unguided it weakens with the distance from the source. The conductive metals used in creating waveguides have a small skin depth in order to ensure a large surface conductance, and because of the reflection at the walls of the waveguide, the waves become confined in the interior of the waveguide. The wave propagates through the waveguide in a zigzag pattern as it bounces from wall to wall.

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What does Cognos mean?

Cognos is a business intelligence and performance management software suite sold by IBM. The software suite was designed to enable non-technical personnel in large enterprises to extract corporate data, analyze them and then produce reports that would help the business make informed decisions. The suite is composed of more than a dozen separate products, which were built on open standards to allow them to communicate with various third-party technologies, from multidimensional and relational databases to enterprise-grade software such as SAP and Oracle.

Cognos was originally the name of the company that created the Business Intelligence suite that is now named after it. The company was founded in 1969 by Alan Rushforth and Peter Glenister, and was originally called Quasar Systems Limited, which was then a consulting company working for the Canadian government. It shifted its focus to software sales in 1980 and renamed itself to Cognos in 1982, taken from the Latin word “cognosco,” which means “knowledge from personal experience,” a rather apt name for the type of industry the company was in. The company was later acquired by IBM on January 31, 2008, losing its independent existence but retaining its legacy in the software suite it developed, which also bears the same name.

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What does Neuroinformatics mean?

Neuroinformatics refers to a research field that focuses on organizing neuroscience data through analytical tools and computational models. It combines data across all scales and levels of neuroscience in order to understand the complex functions of the brain and work toward treatments for brain-related illness. Neuroinformatics involves the techniques and tools for acquiring, sharing, storing, publishing, analyzing, modeling, visualizing and simulating data.

Neuroinformatics helps researchers to work together and share data across different facilities and different countries through the exchange of approaches and tools for integrating and analysing data. This field makes it possible to integrate any type of data across various biological organization levels.

The advancement of neuroinformatics technology facilitates the research done in this field and helps in the free exchange of data and ideas among neurological researchers worldwide.

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What does Semantics mean?

Semantics in IT is a term for the ways that data and commands are presented.

Semantics is a linguistic concept separate from the concept of syntax, which is also often related to attributes of computer programming languages. The idea of semantics is that the linguistic representations or symbols support logical outcomes, as a set of words and phrases signify ideas to both humans and machines.

In general, semantics involves using specific words and labels. For example, a semantic network uses words to represent elements of a network. These types of semantics are geared more toward human audiences than toward a machine interpretation.

In computer programming, a discussion of semantics may include the semantics of computer commands. Again, the semantic representation of words associated with controls, values and other corporate branding concepts, works on a logical basis. With that in mind, if a programmer uses words that don’t make sense to the computer, this may be characterized as a “semantic error.” Programmers may talk about “semantic structure” for either commands or elements of code that represent objects.

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What does Hypervisor mean?

A hypervisor is a hardware virtualization technique that allows multiple guest operating systems (OS) to run on a single host system at the same time. The guest OS shares the hardware of the host computer, such that each OS appears to have its own processor, memory and other hardware resources.

A hypervisor is also known as a virtual machine manager (VMM).

The term hypervisor was first coined in 1956 by IBM to refer to software programs distributed with IBM RPQ for the IBM 360/65. The hypervisor program installed on the computer allowed the sharing of its memory.

The hypervisor installed on the server hardware controls the guest operating system running on the host machine. Its main job is to cater to the needs of the guest operating system and effectively manage it such that the instances of multiple operating systems do not interrupt one another.

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Active-Matrix OLED

What does Active-Matrix OLED (AMOLED) mean?

Active-matrix OLED (AMOLED) is a display technology used in mobile devices, digital cameras, media players, and televisions. It employs active matrix in addressing pixels and uses a specific type of thin film technology in which organic compounds form electroluminescent material. AMOLED stands for active matrix organic light emitting diode.

The AMOLED display is made up of pixels integrated with, or deposited into, a thin film transistor (TFT) array. OLED technology is basically an LED using organic compounds as an emissive electroluminescent layer. The organic compound uses generated light in response to the passage of an electric current.

The TFTs act as switching devices to actively maintain the pixel state while addressing other pixels. The two common TFT backplane technologies used are the non-crystalline thin-film silicon and the polycrystalline silicon. These technologies aid in the fabricating of active matrix backplanes for flexible plastic substrates. Flexible plastic substrates are crucial in producing flexible AMOLED displays.

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What does Terahertz (THz) mean?

Terahertz (THz) is a unit of measure of frequency that is equal to 1 trillion hertz (1012 Hz). It usually refers to the frequency of an electromagnetic wave, which is a part of the electromagnetic spectrum invisible to the naked eye that lies in between the microwave and the infrared range. T-rays are an example of a specific part of the spectrum within the ITU-designated band and range from 0.3 to 3 THz, which finds utility in astronomy.

The terahertz frequency radiation (also known as submillimeter radiation, which has a wavelength of 0.1 mm or 1 µm up to 1 mm) occupies the middle ground between the lower microwave spectrum and the infrared spectrum known as the terahertz gap. It is called a gap because, compared to the microwave and infrared spectrum that are used extensively, the technology for the creation and manipulation of radiation in the terahertz frequency is in its infancy, and there are only few implementations. This is because, at these frequencies, the electromagnetic radiation becomes too high or too thin to be digitally measured using electronic counters, and so it must be measured in proxy through the use of the properties of wavelength and energy. The generation and modulation of electromagnetic signals in this range are also very hard to do with conventional electronic devices used in generating radio waves and microwaves, which would require further research into new technology.

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