What does Seed mean?

In BitTorrent sharing, a seed is a BitTorrent user who has 100% of a file and is sharing it for other BitTorrent users to download. A leech, on the other hand, is a BitTorrent user who downloads the files shared by the seeds and does not seed back to other users.

The download time for a file shared via BitTorrent depends on the number of seeders available for that file; more seeders mean higher torrent speed.

In addition to seeders and leechers, there are peers who are users downloading a file, have part of it, yet are simultaneously uploading the downloaded part to other users. Even though the peers share back the files simultaneously, the actual torrent speed mainly depends on the number of seeders available for the shared file.

When downloading a file, a leech or a peer is not downloading the file from the actual site it is in, but is downloading it from a seed’s computer.

For example, assume that a seed is seeding a file at 50 kbps, and there are five leechers to download that file. Initially, the file is shared at 10 kbps each for every leech. When the leechers finish downloading, and if they seed back the file at the same speed of 50 kbps, the total torrent speed increases to 300 kbps. This process continues depending on the number of seeders and leechers for that specific file.

Continue reading


Software Rot

What does Software Rot mean?

Software rot refers to the slow degradation in the performance of computer software. Such software shows diminished responsiveness, lacks updates, may become faulty overtime owing to changes in the operating system it is running on and thus may need upgrading.

Software rot is also known as software erosion, code rot, software entropy, bit rot or software decay.
Software rot is generally categorized into two types:

  • Dormant rot: Software that is not used on a consistent basis may eventually become useless as the rest of the application transforms. Variations in software environment as well as user demands play a role in the deterioration as well.
  • Active rot: Without constant application of ideal mitigation procedures, software that has undergone constant modifications might lose its integrity gradually. However, most software requires constant updates as well as bug fixing. This may lead to an evolution process, which ultimately makes the program deviate from its original design. As a result of this constant evolution, the logic engineered by the original designers tends to be invalidated, presenting new bugs.

Continue reading


What does Cocooning mean?

Cocooning is the term used when a person isolates or hides him or herself from the normal social environment and instead opts to stay home and socialize less and less. This behavior is usually exhibited when one perceives the social environment as disturbing, unfavorable, unsafe or even unwelcome. The rapid innovation and growth of technology contributed to an increase in individuals who are cocooning themselves in their homes and choosing to socialize over the Internet rather than through normal human interaction. Because communication and entertainment technology are very prolific and can be found anywhere inside the house in many forms, more and more people are living in physical isolation.

This term was popularized by a marketing consultant and writer named Faith Popcorn in the 1990s. She explained that there are three different types of cocoon: the socialized cocoon, the armored cocoon and the wandering cocoon. The socialized cocoon is one that provides the privacy of the home along with the ability to socialize through cell phones and other media, while an armored cocoon establishes an invisible barrier to protect a person from threats from the outside, such as network firewalls and surveillance cameras. A wandering cocoon, on the other hand, is one that travels but provides a technological barrier that protects a person from the environment, such as jogging with headphones in order to create a private world of sounds and an excuse to ignore other people. People often use smartphones in this way as well.

Continue reading

Secure Delete

What does Secure Delete mean?

Secure delete is a process of data deletion that ensures that the deleted file cannot be retrieved. This process is very important for protecting sensitive data properly, as it removes any way for outsiders to mine discarded storage hardware for data. Secure delete can be achieved in many ways, and a number of software applications have been developed that claim to have this functionality.

Secure delete is a way to ensure that the data in its present form is completely gone from the storage device. In contrast, deleting a file in Windows simply moves it to the Recycle Bin, and even if you empty the Recycle Bin or bypass it entirely by using the shortcut key Shift+Delete on a file, the file is not really gone from the hard disk; the OS is simply told that the area where the file was located is free to be used for storing other files. But until that happens, the file still exists in the original disk sectors it was written in. The file will stay there until another file is written over it or the drive gets formatted.

Continue reading


What does Alureon mean?

Alureon is a Trojan, rootkit and botnet that is designed specifically to intercept network traffic and extract sensitive and confidential information from it, enabling the attacker to steal information transmitted over a network connection.

Alureon is also known as TDSS and TDL-4.

Alureon is a Trojan primarily used for data theft and online fraud. In addition to stealing confidential data, Alureon can also corrupt and delete important files on a computer. Furthermore, it can restrict Windows Update and prevent anti-virus software from running. Alureon usually searches for usernames, passwords, credit card information and other confidential information within a network’s traffic.

Alureon mainly affects Microsoft Windows-based computer systems. Typically, Alureon enters a system by being bundled and delivered with a compromised copy of Windows Security Essentials software. Once the software is installed, the Alureon Trojan first takes over the printer spooler service and then changes the master boot record to its preferred routine. Computer systems infected with Alureon were confronted with BSoD and system crashes, specifically when installing security update MS 10-015 on Windows systems.


What does Procure-to-Pay mean?

Procure-to-pay is a term used to describe a system that connects all of the steps of a procurement process, from the decision to buy something to the eventual transaction.

Procure-to-pay is also sometimes known as purchase-to-pay.

The fundamental basis of procure-to-pay is that there is one single streamlined and efficient process that covers every step of procurement. That means there is a lot of leeway in how procure-to-pay systems are set up and implemented.

Procure-to-pay can involve various principles. One is connectivity with suppliers, or establishing a long-term relationship between a vendor and a customer, where each single transaction is evaluated in a fuller context. Another one would be creating a better user experience.

One very simple way to think about procure-to-pay is that, with new technologies, companies can set up easier purchasing processes that do not involve traditional cashier situations.

Continue reading