What does Swizzling mean?

Swizzling, in the context of computer graphics, is the reordering of vector information in the pixel of an image in order to have it rendered quickly and more efficiently. This is because the swizzling is done in favor of the way that a specific graphics processing unit (GPU) or a CPU reads the pixel information, thereby lessening the overhead. The result is the same image that can be rendered much more quickly.

Swizzling is achieved by reordering the matrix of values that make up the vector information. It is done because different renderers and graphics processors access data in different ways and in different orders, so swizzling vector information to cater to this special way allows the programmer to use specific instructions that can process data faster. This may also help in organizing the data in memory to allow better use of texture caches. For example, the vector component c1.rgba may be swizzled into c2.abgr to remove a step that a graphics processor might take to reorder the data, making processing faster.

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What does Netwar mean?

A netwar is a form of low-intensity conflict that is waged by netizens, or people on the Internet (referred hereafter as networked actors), which include criminal organizations, transnational terrorists, social movement groups and activist groups.

The war is waged through decentralized and flexible network structures. It essentially refers to the conflict being waged over the Internet and networked systems such as information mobilization, hackings and counter-hackings, and, to a lesser extent, even very simple heated arguments over random topics between groups or cells.

Netwar is a concept unique to the Internet and information technology industry as a whole. It was introduced in the early 1990s by RAND Corporation, a US government-funded think-tank. The essence of netwar is the emerging forms of conflict in which the participants (i.e., networked actors) are made up of scattered groups and networks rather than of a cohesive institution whose main aim is to use knowledge, understanding and information in order to achieve a goal rather than to explicitly control physical resources and territory, which characterizes traditional wars.

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4 calamitous truth of WAP

Is WAP really a secure protocol?

You’re using a wireless access point that has encryption so you’re safe, right? Wrong! Hackers want you to believe that you are protected so you will remain vulnerable to their attacks. Here are 4 things that wireless hackers hope you won’t find out, otherwise they might not be able to break into your network and/or computer:

1. WEP encryption is useless for protecting your wireless network. WEP is easily cracked within minutes and only provides users with a false sense of security.

Even a mediocre hacker can defeat Wired Equivalent Privacy (WEP)-based security in a matter of minutes, making it essentially useless as a protection mechanism. Many people set their wireless routers up years ago and have never bothered to change their wireless encryption from WEP to the newer and stronger WPA2 security. Updating your router to WPA2 is a fairly simple process. Visit your wireless router manufacturer’s website for instructions.

2. Using your wireless router’s MAC filter to prevent unauthorized devices from joining your network is ineffective and easily defeated.

Every piece of IP-based hardware, whether it’s a computer, game system, printer, etc, has a unique hard-coded MAC address in its network interface. Many routers will allow you to permit or deny network access based on a device’s MAC address. The wireless router inspects the MAC address of the network device requesting access and compares it your list of permitted or denied MACs. This sounds like a great security mechanism but the problem is that hackers can “spoof” or forge a fake MAC address that matches an approved one. All they need to do is use a wireless packet capture program to sniff (eavesdrop) on the wireless traffic and see which MAC addresses are traversing the network. They can then set their MAC address to match one of that is allowed and join the network.

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Cyber Incident Response Plan

What does Cyber Incident Response Plan mean?

A cyber incident response plan (CIRP) is a comprehensive plan for tackling eventual cyberthreats and cyberattacks. Businesses make use of this plan to be proactive about cybersecurity and minimize the damage from viruses, hacker activities and more.

The philosophy behind creating a cyber incident response plan (CIRP) is that simply defending a digital perimeter is not enough. Consultants and experts urge companies to go beyond and develop a CIRP in order to know how to handle cybersecurity issues and attacks as they arise.

In other words, businesses should assume that cybersecurity events will occur and should determine how to do damage control. Security experts point out that the U.S. government and Department of Defense are already taking these precautionary measures and that corporations should follow suit.

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Software Theft

What does Software Theft mean?

Software theft means the unauthorized or illegal copying, sharing or usage of copyright-protected software programs. Software theft may be carried out by individuals, groups or, in some cases, organizations who then distribute the unauthorized software copies to users.

Software theft is committed when someone performs any of the following:

  • Steals software media
  • Deliberately erases programs
  • Illegally copies or distributes a program
  • Registers or activates a software program illegally

Several types of protection have been introduced to safeguard software from being copied or cracked; however, with advanced hacking skills and sufficient efforts, it is actually possible to crack or bypass protection.

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Turing Test

What does Turing Test mean?

A Turing test is a test performed to determine a machine’s ability to exhibit intelligent behavior. The basic concept behind the test is that if a human judge is engaged in a natural language conversation with a computer where he cannot reliably distinguish machine from human, the machine passes the test. Responses from both participants in the conversation are received in the form of a text-only channel. This test was introduced by Alan Turing in 1950.

The Turing test is used to measure a machine’s ability to think and is an important concept in the philosophy of artificial intelligence. A machine’s success at thinking can be quantified by the likelihood that a human will misidentify it as a human subject.

A computer’s ability to think is determined through an imitation game. In this game, there are three players A, B and C. Player A is a man, B a woman and C is of either sex. C cannot see A and B, and communicates with the others through written notes. Player C determines which of the others is a man and which is a woman by asking a series of questions. Player A tricks the interrogator into making the wrong decision, while B attempts to guide C toward the right path.

In the original imitation game test, Turing proposes A to be a computer. The computer pretends to be a woman and tricks the interrogator into making an incorrect evaluation. The machine’s success is determined by comparing the outcome of the game when A is a computer against when A is a man. If the interrogator goes wrong when playing the game between man and woman, the computer is assessed to be intelligent.

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Armored Virus

What does Armored Virus mean?

A computer virus’s primary goal is to spread as far as possible without being noticed. A computer virus which is coded specifically using different mechanisms to make it undetectable or very difficult to decrypt is known as Armored Virus. Other 2 types of virus that came in this category are Stealth viruses and Polymorphic viruses. An example of an armored virus is Whale.

This can be done using many methods, one of those is fooling the anti-virus about the real location of the virus which makes it difficult to detect and remove the virus another method is to code the virus in such a confusing way that it becomes hard for the virus researcher to reverse engineer the code. We can say that an armored virus protects itself from anti-virus programs.

Below are the 5 section describes basic methods of armored viruses:

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XSS Hole

What does XSS Hole mean?

An XSS hole is a Web application that renders dynamic content to users with a computer security vulnerability. This application is cross-site scripting (XSS), and it enables an attacker to exploit a user’s confidential data without passing an access control mechanism such as a same-origin policy. This defect is more appropriately known as an XSS hole.

For example, the user may come across a hyperlink in a Web application pointing to some malicious content. The user may click the link and be led to another page containing some advertisement or email bulletin. This page gathers user information in the form of a password. It also generates a malicious output page that indicates some fake response tailored to appear as genuine to the user. Either the data entered by the user can be misused or the user’s session can be hijacked by cookie theft. Based on the sensitivity of the data collected, cross-site scripting can range from a mere vulnerability to a serious security loophole. After exploitation of the XSS vulnerability, the attacker may bypass the organization’s access control policies.

The concept of cross-site scripting is based on the same original policy. Same original policies state that a Web browser using JavaScript can access different properties and methods belonging to the same site without any restrictions. Malicious attackers can exploit the concept of the same original policy by injecting malicious code into a website using JavaScript. When the Web pages are viewed by users, attackers may gather some useful user information such as a username or password.

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Round Robin DNS

What does Round Robin DNS mean?

Round robin Domain Name System (DNS) refers to a method of load balancing, load distribution or fault-tolerance provisioning of various obsolete Internet Protocol service hosts, such as FTP servers, Web servers, etc., by handling the responses of the DNS. This is for handling requests from client computers as per a proper statistical model.

In this load-balancing technique, as opposed to the standard load techniques, the balance of power is placed in the DNS server rather than in a fully dedicated machine.

Round robin DNS works on a rotation basis during which the IP address of a server is given out, and then it proceeds to the back of the list; the IP address of the next server is given out, and then it proceeds to the end of the list. This process continues with respect to the number of servers utilized. This process is carried out in a looping fashion.

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Search Algorithm

What does Search Algorithm mean?

A search algorithm is the step-by-step procedure used to locate specific data among a collection of data. It is considered a fundamental procedure in computing. In computer science, when searching for data, the difference between a fast application and a slower one often lies in the use of the proper search algorithm.

All search algorithms make use of a search key in order to proceed with the procedure. Search algorithms are expected to return a success or a failure status, usually denoted by Boolean true/false. Different search algorithms are available, and the performance and efficiency of the same depend on the data and on the manner in which they are used.

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